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General Dermatology


Eczema

Eczema (dermatitis) is an itchy rash with inflamed skin. Symptoms can range in severity from mild itching and redness to severe blistering and cracked skin. Early, acute eczema can be red, blistering, or oozing and can appear anywhere. Later on, chronic eczema can be thickened, rough, and darker than the surrounding skin due to prolonged scratching. Almost always, eczema itches.

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Leading Types of Eczema

Eczema takes on different forms depending on the nature of the trigger and the location of the rash. While they all share some common symptoms like itchiness there are differences. Following are some of the most common types of eczema.

  • Atopic Dermatitis - The most frequent form of eczema, atopic dermatitis is thought to be caused by abnormal functioning of the body's immune system. It is characterized by itchy, inflamed skin. Atopic dermatitis tends to run in families. About two-thirds of the people who develop this form of eczema do so before the age of one. Atopic dermatitis generally flares up and recedes intermittently throughout the patient's life.
  • Contact Dermatitis - Contact dermatitis is caused when the skin comes into contact with an allergy-producing agent or an irritant, such as chemicals. Finding the triggering allergen is important to treatment and prevention. Allergens can be things like laundry detergent, cosmetics, jewelry, fabrics, perfume, diapers and poison ivy or poison sumac.
  • Dyshidrotic Dermatitis - This type of eczema strikes the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. It produces clear, deep blisters that itch and burn. Dyshidrotic dermatitis occurs most frequently during the summer months and in warm climates.
  • Neurodermatitis - Also known as Lichen Simplex Chronicus, this is a chronic skin inflammation caused by a continuous cycle of scratching and itching in response to a localized itch, like a mosquito bite. It creates scaly patches of skin, most commonly on the head, lower legs, wrists or forearms. Over time, the skin may become thickened and leathery.
  • Nummular Dermatitis - This form of eczema appears as round patches of irritated skin that may be crusted, scaly and extremely itchy. Nummular dermatitis most frequently appears on the arms, back, buttocks and lower legs, and is usually a chronic condition.
  • Seborrheic Dermatitis - Seborrheic dermatitis is a common condition that causes yellowish, oily and scaly patches on the scalp, face or other body parts. Dandruff, in adults, and cradle cap, in infants, are both forms of seborrheic dermatitis. Unlike other types of eczema, seborrheic dermatitis does not necessarily itch. It tends to run in families. Known triggers include weather, oily skin, emotional stress and infrequent shampooing.
  • Stasis Dermatitis - Also known as varicose eczema, this form of eczema is a skin irritation that appears on the lower legs of middle-aged and elderly people. It is related to circulation and vein problems. Symptoms include itching and reddish-brown discoloration of the skin on one or both legs. As the condition progresses, it can lead to blistering, oozing and skin lesions.




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